By the time the Gregorian calendar was introduced in ADIllig alleges that the old Julian calendar should have produced a discrepancy of thirteen days between it and the real or tropical calendar. The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesarwas long known to introduce a discrepancy from the tropical year of around one day for each century that the calendar was in use.
He was active in an association dedicated to Immanuel Velikovskycatastrophism and historical revisionismGesellschaft zur Rekonstruktion der Menschheits- und Naturgeschichte. The Julian calendar day Thursday, 4 October was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October His proposals received prominent coverage in German popular media in the s.
The relation between the Julian calendarGregorian calendar and the underlying astronomical solar or tropical year. Instead, the astronomers and mathematicians working for Pope Gregory XIII had found that the civil calendar needed to be adjusted by only ten days.
Besides several others that are perhaps too vague to disprove the phantom time hypothesis, two in particular are dated with enough precision to disprove the hypothesis with a high degree of certainty.
Criticism[ edit ] The most difficult challenge to the theory is through observations in ancient astronomyespecially those of solar eclipses cited by European sources prior to AD when phantom time would have distorted the chronology. The "phantom time" period also encompasses the life of Muhammad and the Islamic expansion into the areas of the former Roman Empire, including the conquest of Visigothic Iberia.
Bythe astronomical equinox was occurring on March 10 in the Julian calendar, but Easter was still being calculated from a nominal equinox on March Before focusing on the early medieval period, Illig published various proposals for revised chronologies of prehistory and of Ancient Egypt.
This history too would have to be forged or drastically misdated. The presence of Romanesque architecture in tenth-century Western Europe, suggesting the Roman era was not as long ago as conventionally thought. Outside of his publications related to revised chronology, he has edited the works of Egon Friedell.
In 45 BC the astronomical vernal equinox took place around March It would also have to be reconciled with the history of the Tang dynasty of China and its contact with Islam, such as at the Battle of Talas.
From this, Illig concludes that the AD era had counted roughly three centuries which never existed. Also inhe published on an unrelated topic of art historyon German Renaissance master Anton Pilgrambut again proposing revisions to conventional chronology, and arguing for the abolition of the art historical category of Mannerism.
His Das erfundene Mittelalter also received scholarly recensions, but was universally rejected as fundamentally flawed by historians.The phantom time hypothesis is a historical conspiracy theory asserted by Heribert Illig.
First published init hypothesizes a conspiracy by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, Pope Sylvester II, and possibly the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, to fabricate the Anno Domini dating system retrospectively, in order to place them at the special year of ADand to rewrite history to.
The documentary hypothesis (DH) is one of three models used to explain the origins and composition of the first five books of the Bible, called collectively the Torah or Pentateuch. The other two theories are the supplementary hypothesis and the fragmentary hypothesis.
All three agree that the Torah is not a unified work from a single author (traditionally Moses) but is made up of sources.Download